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By by Shaikul-Islam Ibn Taimiyah ; abridged by Ash-Shahhat Ahmad At-Tahhan ; rendered into English by Bayan Translation Services.

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Not only had it collapsed; it had imploded into infighting between Seljuk and Abbasid and Seljuk and Seljuk, and there were at minimum plausible suspicions that the deaths that had launched the cycle of destruction were murders perpetrated by stakeholders in the system. It is hard to imagine this not changing the worldview of al-Ghazālī, who had worked for Niẓām al-Mulk in creating the very system that had collapsed. Al-Ghazālī’s Crisis and Transformation in a Political Context Al-Ghazālī’s first response was to continue to support the system, working with what may have seemed its most stable remaining element: the caliph.

35 Thus, within a year and a half, the vizier who had managed the affairs of the Seljuk Empire for nearly 30 years, the sultan of 20 years, and the caliph had all died.  Malikshāh was able to establish a stable regime beginning in 498/1105. ” Al-Ghazālī himself described the circumstances that prevailed at the death of the caliph al-Muqtadī as follows: Armies surrounded the City of Peace [Baghdad] whose outskirts were crowded with every sort of soldiery. It was a time of religion’s eclipse (zamān al-fatra36), and the world was overflowing with tribulation and roiling with strife.

485/1092) and known therefore as the Niẓāmiyya, one of many such madrasas the great vizier endowed throughout Seljuk lands. Al-Ghazālī’s teacher, al-Juwaynī (d. 3 It was to answer for this youthful work that Sanjar would summon him, and it was this very partisanship for his own Shāfiʿī school of law that he mentions forswearing at the tomb of Abraham, referring to it as “sectarian fanaticism” (taʿaṣṣub). After his teacher’s death, al-Ghazālī took a position in the vizier Niẓām al-Mulk’s court in Isfahan, where his service to Malikshāh, too, may have began.

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