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By William G. Rothstein

During this generally researched background of scientific colleges, William Rothstein, a number one historian of yank medication, lines the formation of the scientific tuition from its foundation as a resource of clinical lectures to its present prestige as a middle of undergraduate and graduate clinical schooling, biomedical learn, and really good sufferer care. utilizing numerous historic and sociological concepts, Rothstein properly describes tools of scientific schooling from one iteration of medical professionals to the subsequent, illustrating the altering profession paths in medication. even as, this research considers clinical colleges in the context of the nation of scientific perform, associations of treatment, and basic larger schooling. the main entire and thorough common heritage of scientific schooling within the usa ever written, this paintings focuses either at the historic improvement of scientific colleges and their present prestige.

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Medical schools provided only the theoretical part of a student's medical education. The practical education was provided in the apprenticeship, which the schools did not control. Furthermore, the absence of effective licensing laws meant that anyone could practice medicine when and where he chose. The schools therefore held that their degree was evidence of achievement in certain aspects of medicine, not a certificate of competence to practice medicine in the community. In order to graduate from a medical school, a student was required to be 21 years of age, to certify that he spent three years as an apprentice with a preceptor, to complete two courses of medical school lectures (usually taken during the last two years of the apprenticeship), to pass an oral examination, and, in the eighteenth century, to prepare and defend a thesis.

The herbs were dried or prepared according to the recipes and stored for future use. Proprietary medicines were not widely available until the nineteenth century. When outside help was desired, the patient and his family chose among physicians, Indian doctors, botanical healers, midwives (who often provided other types of care as well), nostrum dealers, and others who claimed to have healing powers acquired through experience, heredity, or divine guidance. 12 The availability of physicians varied widely among communities.

52 The attempt to organize medical schools as true academic departments in colleges had failed. Colleges and medical schools maintained an affiliation only because the medical school needed to use the college's authority to award degrees and the college was willing to accept a school that cost it nothing and gave the appearance of broadening its curriculum. To understand why a closer relationship failed to develop, it is necessary to examine the colleges of the period. The Eighteenth Century College Colleges were enthusiastic about adding medical schools because they were in the process of broadening their educational functions beyond those of training clergymen.

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