By Susan L. Cutter
Barrier islands. Flood plains. Earthquake faults. occasionally the surroundings poses threats to our health, but many folks proceed to settle on to stay in dicy or harmful locations. And on most sensible of the knowns-rdquo; are the opposite, extra hidden dangers relating to environmental illness that pose both critical threats to our health and wellbeing and good being.But the place are those areas and what sorts of risks are came across there? American Hazardscapes examines the hazards linked to dwelling and possessing estate in varied areas around the usa, delivering twin views: that of the geographer and that of the social technology risks researcher. The e-book summarizes what we already learn about local styles of chance occasions and losses throughout the past 3 many years and is going additional to make clear the character of the occasions themselves and their influence on society.Written for the moving citizen and the coverage maker alike, American Hazardscapes provides a neighborhood ecology of disaster-prone or disaster-resistant states. It additionally bargains recommendations on what neighborhood, country, and federal managers have to do to fulfill the problem of decreasing possibility losses within the subsequent century.
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Additional resources for American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (2001)(en)(226s)
The chapter concludes with a discussion on the role of technological advances in influencing the mapping and the spatial analysis of societal response to hazards. M INFORMATIONAL NEEDS AND INPUTS The data we use in hazards assessment and response have two fundamental characteristics: a time (or temporal) dimension and a geographic (or spatial) dimension. The requirements for each may be quite different, depending on the application. For example, the data needed for postevent emergency response (rescue and relief) are quite 37 38 American Hazardscapes different from the information we need for longer-term recovery and mitigation efforts.
As this example illustrates, the use of the term spatial scale is often so contextual and audience-specific that it is confusing to others when we say our study is at such-and-such a spatial scale. Despite this confusion, spatial scale is still an important parameter in geographic data collection and data storage. Selection of appropriate spatial characteristics is critical for hazards and vulnerability assessments (Been 1995, Cutter et al. 1996). It is arguably one of the primary reasons why different relationships are observed between risk variables in diverse analyses.
High-risk coastlines are defined by low coastal elevations, histories of shoreline retreat, high wave/tidal energies, erodible substrates, subsidence experience, and high probabilities of hurricane and/or tropical storm hits. The index uses 13 biophysical variables such as elevation, wave heights, hurricane probability, and hurricane intensity, which are ranked from low to high (1 to 5). S. shoreline segments examined. The data are geocoded and can be used in conjunction with other geographic information to produce vulnerability assessments.