By T. H. Tse
Established methodologies are a well-liked and strong instrument in info structures improvement. many various ones exist, each one making use of a couple of versions and so a specification needs to be switched over from one shape to a different through the improvement technique. to resolve this challenge, Dr. Tse proposes a unifying framework at the back of well known dependent versions. He ways the matter from the viewpoints of algebra and type concept. He not just develops the frameworks but in addition illustrates their functional and theoretical usefulness. therefore, this booklet will offer perception for software program engineers into how methodologies may be formalized, and should open up more than a few functions and difficulties for theoretical desktop scientists
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Extra resources for A Unifying Framework for Structured Analysis and Design Models: An Approach Using Initial Algebra Semantics and Category Theory
Each layer of the packet is decoded in a top-down fashion, starting with the data link layer at the top and the application layer at the bottom. The third window you see in Figure 2-4 is the “raw,” or hex, decoding of the packet. This window shows you the raw hexadecimal values of the frame’s contents. You might ask yourself what good seeing the raw data is to an analyst. Sometimes frames are not fully decoded, and patterns that exist in the hex, indicating the type of packet or ASCII data, may give you a further indication of what’s happening on the wire.
27 28 Chapter 1 A communications model such as the DoD or OSI model is just that, a model. It doesn’t matter which model you refer to as long as you understand the function of each layer. The DoD model handles the categorization of the protocols that I discuss in Chapters 3 through 6 quite nicely, but as I start talking about the upper layers, only the OSI model will do the protocols justice. The majority of the TCP/IP protocols I talk about are the “core” protocols—IP, ICMP, UDP, and TCP. These exist at Layers 3 and 4.
Packets are presented in a summary, detail, and raw format. Figure 2-4 shows the analyzer after packets have been captured. Table 2-2 Monitor Statistics LAYER STATISTICS Data Link Utilization, packets per second, kilobytes per second, errors Network Traffic by node, routing information Transport Connections, retransmissions Session Concurrent sessions Application Kilobytes per second, active users Analysis Tools and Techniques Summary Detail Raw (hex) Figure 2-4 Captured packets. The summary pane gives a top-level view of the packets captured.